Finite element modeling of static tire enveloping characteristics
To investigate static tire enveloping characteristics, a three dimensional (3-D) finite element model is proposed. The vertical stiffness of the tire is studied on a flat surface with and without cleat. Tire rubber materials and cord layers are represented independently using -rebar- elements available in MSC Marc Mentat. Comparisons of numerical and experimental results are given to show the validity of the proposed model. It is shown that after a certain displacement, the results of the proposed model agree well with experimental results. In addition, the model results show that regardless of the type of the cleat placed under the rim center (hub center), all vertical force curves intersect after a certain displacement, which indicates typical static enveloping characteristics. Moreover, another typical characteristic of the radial tires that is unlike those of bias-ply constructions confirms that the contact patch does not expand laterally after a level vertical load is applied to the tire, which is directly related to fuel consumption and tire tread life.