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Michael J. Flannagan

Dr. Michael Flannagan is a research associate professor in UMTRI’s Human Factors Group, where he does research on the human factors of driving. His research expertise is mainly in human vision and psychophysics. Much of Dr. Flannagan’s recent work has concentrated on the analysis of crash data...

John M. Sullivan
Dr. John M. Sullivan is an associate research scientist and head of UMTRI's Human Factors Group. He has about 20 years of experience studying human factors in transportation at UMTRI.
 
His past work examined the influence of visibility, particularly at night...
Headlamps and pedestrian injuries
This study examined existing U.S. data on the contribution of headlamp hardware to pedestrian injuries in crashes. Three sets of pedestrian crash data were used. The first set included all police-reported pedestrian crashes from five states. The analyzed variable was the initial point of impact on...
Vehicle kinematics in turns and the role of cornering lamps in driver vision
SAE Recommended Practice J852 and ECE Regulations 119 and 48 for cornering lamps were compared. Photometric points described in each specification were then compared to naturalistic lowspeed turn trajectories produced by 87 drivers. Future locations of a vehicle engaged in a turn were calculated...
Benefits of daytime running lights
This study evaluated the effects of daytime running lights (DRLs) on two-vehicle, head-on crashes of passenger vehicles during daylight, dawn, and dusk. Two control dimensions were used: type of crash (the control being single-vehicle crashes) and light condition (the control being darkness). The...
Differences in geometry of pedestrian crashes in daylight and darkness
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that increased risk in darkness is particularly great for pedestrian crashes, suggesting that attempts to improve headlighting should focus on factors that likely influence those crashes. The current analysis was designed to provide information about how...
Heavy trucks, conspicuity treatment, and the decline of collision risk in darkness
Introduction: The influence of amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 108, requiring conspicuity treatments on heavy tractors and trailers, was determined in analyses of the odds of fatal collisions in darkness. Method: Comparisons were made between crashes in which conspicuity...
The influence of rear turn-signal characteristics on crash risk
Introduction: The relationship between the relative risk of a rear-end collision during a turn, merge, or lane change maneuver and the characteristics of the rear turn-signal configuration was examined using crash data from seven states in the United States. Method: Rear turn-signal characteristics...
Real-world frequency of use of lighting equipment.
This study provides information about average annual use of the following automotive lighting equipment by U.S. drivers: low- and high-beam headlamps, turn signals, back-up, license plate, parking, sidemarker, stop, and tail lamps. The data were collected as part of a naturalistic field study of...
Prevalence of LED light sources on vehicles sold in the U.S.
This report provides information regarding the market-weighted prevalence of lightemitting diode (LED) light sources for exterior lighting on model year 2008 vehicles sold in the U.S. The main findings were as follows: (1) LEDs are employed to some degree for virtually all required exterior...

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