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Legibility index for examining common viewing situations a new definition using solid angle.
The legibility levels of text and graphics can be assessed using the Legibility Index, conventionally defined as the distance at which material can be read with perfect accuracy (the legibility distance) divided by the character height. The ratio equals the inverse tangent of the visual angle...
Automotive technology and human factors research : past, present, and future
This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility), driver workspace (seating and...
The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers : Findings from a driving simulator study
Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on...
A simulator evaluation of the effects of attention maintenance training on glance distributions of younger novice drivers inside and outside the vehicle.
Driver distraction inside and outside the vehicle is increasingly a problem, especially for younger drivers. In many cases the distraction is associated with long glances away from the forward roadway. Such glances have been shown to be highly predictive of crashes. Ideally, one would like to...
Experimental effects of injunctive norms on simulated risky driving among teenage males
Teenage passengers affect teenage driving performance, possibly by social influence. To examine the effect of social norms on driving behavior, male teenagers were randomly assigned to drive in a simulator with a peer-aged confederate to whom participants were primed to attribute either risk-...
Current knowledge on adolescent driver distraction
Motor vehicle collisions (crashes) are the leading cause of death to adolescents and are a major contributor to nonfatal injuries. There are many contributors to crash-related morbidity and mortality of adolescents, such as inexperience and lack of skills, immaturity, and distraction. Driver...
Driver distraction: A perennial but preventable public health threat to adolescents
Although public health efforts have made some progress in reducing risk of adolescent motor vehicle crashes over the last three decades, new technologies and evolving behavior patterns have focused attention on the risk of distracted driving. For many of the same reasons that alcohol-impaired...
Keep your eyes on the road: Young driver crash risk increases according to duration of distraction
Secondary task engagement that distracts the driver is a contributing factor to motor vehicle crashes among adults. However, the association between eye glance duration and crash risk with novice teenage drivers has not been determined. Methods: Vehicles of 42 newly licensed teenage drivers were...
Neural responses to exclusion predict susceptibility to social influence
Social influence is prominent across the lifespan, but sensitivity to influence is especially high during adolescence and is often associated with increased risk taking. Such risk taking can have dire consequences. For example, in American adolescents, traffic-related crashes are leading causes of...

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