Tools for Child Restraint Design

Virtual Child Models

UMTRI has developed virtual child models representing a range of child sizes. These can be used with CAD versions of child restraints to check potential fit. An overview of the research was presented at a workshop in June 2015; links to the presentations are below.

Child Body Shape Modeling Presentation 6-23-2015

Virtual Toddler Briefing Presentation 6-23-2015

Humanshape.org contains tools that allow generation of realistic 3-dimensional shapes of standing and seated children and seated toddlers. In addition, we have generated several models representing specific combinations of child stature and weight that can be downloaded.

Toddler Manikins

Child Restraint Fit Envelopes

The ISO has developed envelopes representing different sizes of child restraints that can improve compatibility between child restraints and vehicles. NHTSA has sponsored similar research at UMTRI do develop fit envelopes using US child restraint products. Results were shared at a workshop in June 2015; materials and publications related to the workshop and research are linked below.

NHTSA Envelopes Workshop Briefing 6-23-2015

Envelope Instructions July 2015

Final Report: Development of Fit Envelopes to Promote Compatibility Among Vehicles and Child Restraint Systems

Links to Drawings

STL FormatSTEP Format
Forward-facing Large
Forward-facing Medium
Forward-facing Small
Rear-facing Large
Rear-facing Medium
Rear-facing Small
Forward-facing Large
Forward-facing Medium
Forward-facing Small
Rear-facing Large
Rear-facing Medium
Rear-facing Small

Other Relevant Publications

Jones MH, Ebert SM, Reed MP, Klinich KD (2018) Development of a three-dimensional body shape model of young children for child restraint design. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 21(15):784-794. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2018.1521960.

Boyle KJ, Malik LJ, Manary MA, Eby B, Hu J, Klinich KD (2017) Development of fit envelopes to promote compatibility among child restraints and vehicles, Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference, Detroit, MI.

Hu J, Manary MA, Klinich KD, Reed MP (2015) Evaluation of ISO CRS Envelopes Relative to U.S. Vehicles and Child Restraint Systems.  Traffic Injury Prevention. 16(8)781-5.

Klinich KD, Boyle K, Malik L, Manary M, Hu J. (2015) Installed Positions of Child Restraint Systems in Vehicle Second Rows SAE 2015 World Congress, SAE-2015-01-1452, Detroit, MI.

Klinich KD, Jones MH, Manary MA, Ebert SH, Boyle KJ, Malik L, Orton NR, Reed MP. (2020, April). Investigation of potential design and performance criteria for booster seats through volunteer and dynamic testing.DOT HS 812 919. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Klinich KD, Boyle KJ, Malik L, Manary MA, Eby B, Hu J. Development of Vehicle/Child restraint Compatibility Envelopes, UMTRI 2015-24, DOT HS 812 610, 2018

Manary MA, Klinich KD, & Orton NR. Assessment of ATD selection and use for testing of rear-facing child restraint systems for larger infants and toddlers. DOT HS 812 469, 2018.

Ebert SM, Klinich KD, Manary MA Malik LM, Reed MP.  Toddler Lower Extremity Posture in Child Restraint Systems, UMTRI 2014-8, 2018

Kim KH, Jones MJH, Ebert SM, Malik L, Manary MA, Reed MP, Klinich KD. Development of Virtual Toddler Fit Models for Child Safety Fit Design. UMTRI 2015-38.

Manary MA , Orton NR, Klinich KD (2015) Comparing the CRABI-12 and CRABI-18 for Infant Child Restraint Evaluation, DOT HS 812 156